AnyBody Modeling System
The AnyBody Modeling System is a software system for simulating the mechanics of the live human body working in concert with its environment.
The environment is defined in terms of external forces and boundary conditions, and the user may impose any kind of posture or motion for the human body - either from scratch or from a set recorded motion data. AnyBody then runs a simulation and calculates the mechanical properties for the body-environment system.
From AnyBody the user can obtain results on individual muscle forces, joint forces and moments, metabolism, elastic energy in tendons, antagonistic muscle actions and much more.
AnyBody can also scale the models to fit to any population from anthropometric data or to any individual. Or, you can parameterize your studies in AnyBody to match product design trade-offs, finding the optimum combination of parameters to fulfill a given purpose.
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With the AnyBody Modeling System you can:
- Handle body models with unprecedented detail efficiently - 1000+ muscle elements
- Obtain unique knowledge on the kinetics inside the body for a given environment
- Customize your models in the open scripting language AnyScript
- Solve product design issues by scaling and optimizing parametric models
- Import data from Motion Capture systems to drive AnyBody models
- Export AnyBody data as input to Finite Element models
- Run the software on an ordinary PC
AnyBody supports the C3D format. C3D is "...a public domain, binary file format that is used in Biomechanics, Animation and Gait Analysis laboratories to record synchronized 3D and analog data. It is supported by all 3D major Motion Capture System manufacturers, as well as other companies in the Biomechanics, Motion Capture and Animation Industries."
AnyBody Modeling System v. 5.0
Key updates include features for integrated modeling non-conforming joints and soft-tissue governed displacements. User interface updates streamline the work flow for repetitive data analysis for users in gait lab and similar situations. The sections below contain further information on v. 5.0 and the AnyBody Managed Model Repository v. 1.3 released with it.
Spine Model Updates
The lumbar spine model in the AMMR v.1.3 has been updated with intertransverse ligaments connecting transverse processes at all levels/joints of the lumbar spine. These ligaments assist in the preservation of motion during lumbar spine axial rotation. Additionally, full sets of ligaments (anterior/posterior, ligamenta flava, interspinous, supraspinous) have been introduced to the T12L1 and L5Sacrum level.
Furthermore, integration of the force dependent kinematics (FDK) solver into the inverse dynamics analysis in the AMS v. 5 has enabled deactivation of the previously prescribed spine rhythm. Instead, the AMS computes positions of the vertebral bodies based on the muscular and external loads. This feature together with the lumbar spine ligaments enables the lumbar spine model to adapt to a natural curvature derived from gravity, passive forces from the ligaments, disk stiffnesses, effects of abdominal pressure, and muscle forces acting during the activity being analyzed.
Finally, facet joints have been added to the model. The model facet joints have the ability to limit the motion of the lumbar spine. Facet joints also create contact forces between superior and inferior articulate processes of adjacent lumbar spine vertebrae. These contact forces in conjunction with the FDK enables contact between the vertebrae and control the spine curvature by reducing unnatural motion of the components of the lumbar spine.
Dynamics Stabilization Device Model
The new updated spine model supported by the new force-dependent kinematics feature in the AMS v.5.0 has been brought into use for a new model example featuring a dynamics stabilization device.
This model replicates a typical design with a titanium rod with two clamps, which are rigidly screwed to the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae on both lateral sides of the spine. In the example the device is attached to L4 and L5 vertebrae. The model enables easy exploration of design options. It is included in the AMMR v. 1.3 which is available to all new users of AnyBody as well as existing users on active maintenance.
Modeling Non-Conforming Joints and Soft-Tissue Governed Displacements
The new AMS v. 5.0 features a new method aimed at handling small displacements (motion) that is insignificant to the gross motion and therefore typically impossible to measure (by e.g. MOCAP), but which may be important e.g. for a joint configuration, i.e. relative positions, reaction forces directions, muscle/tendon moment arms, etc. We use the term force dependent kinematics for this coupling of kinematics and kinetics.
Typical application areas include non-conforming joint modeling, such as advanced modeling of knee joints and inter-vertebrae joints, and soft-tissue governed displacements for instance displacements that are highly controlled by ligaments and other soft tissue.
Force dependent kinematics is fully integrated into the existing inverse dynamics solver in the AMS. Recall that inverse dynamics implies that the kinematic analysis is independent of the forces, and that the motion is completely specified by the user. Inverse dynamic analysis then calculates the forces needed to govern that motion. In contrast, force dependent kinematics essentially implies that the mechanical system is kinematically indeterminate. Therefore, Anybody now supplies a solver that couples the inverse dynamics solver with a quasi-static analysis of user-selected degrees of freedom when the kinematic force dependency is not influencing the gross motion significantly.
The same approach enables analysis of non-conforming joints, soft-tissue governed displacements, and similar phenomena without compromising the advantages of the efficient and highly versatile inverse dynamics approach used by AnyBody.
Gait Model Updates Streamlining Gait Analysis
GaitLowerExtremityProject is a new model included in the new AMMR v. 1.3. It streamlines gait lab work data workflow by enabling simple and fast loading of the model with new C3D marker data using new facilities in the AnyScript model language supporting graphical model interaction. GaitLowerExtremityProject is based on the existing, validated GaitLowerExtremity model.
AnyBody Modeling System v. 5.1
Prediction of in-vivo kinematic performance of prosthetic and natural joints
Robustness of the FDK solver has been increased in the new AnyBody Modeling System version 5.1 to handle surface contact that affects the force-dependent kinematics degrees of freedom. A new surface contact force model predicts surface contact forces based on the rigid penetration of two geometrical objects (surfaces) defined by standard STL files or by AnyBody's native ANYSURF files. Thus, the contact model is similar to rigid-rigid contact models in finite-element systems and approximates contact force as the integral of the penetration times a constant. This produces a force with elastic behavior where material non-linearity, surface geometrical deformations, and friction are neglected.
Therefore, AnyBody's contact model is aimed at predicting the kinematical behavior of surface contacts in combination with the FDK solver, e.g. natural joints and prosthetic joints. The correctness of the kinematical behavior is essential for the predictions from the musculoskeletal models since it determines muscle and ligament working conditions (moment arms). In contrast, for analysis of surface pressure and stresses in the surface material finite element analysis using dynamic forces predicted by the AnyBody simulation will still be needed.
Model updates and new model processing C3D mocap data
Version 1.4 of the AnyBody Managed Model Repository (AMMR) has been released together with the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS) v. 5.1. It supports and uses facilities of the new AMS and we'll get it bundled together with new v.5.1 when you download it. This means that many models in, or based on, AMMR 1.4 will not run in older AnyBody versions.
Aimed at subject-specific modeling a significant update is the improved usage of scaling functions for the human model scaling. This together with the new scaling functions available in AMS v. 5.1 make the combination of the new AMS and AMMR v.1.4 a significantly better starting point for users. It is recommended to use the new software release and repository as basis for your modeling.
The model C3DProject has been added. It replaces the GaitLowerExtremityProject model as an example of interfacing to MOCAP C3D data. C3DProject features many new GUI facilities available in AnyBody Modeling System version 5.1 making use of the AnyBody Project tab and the HTML-based descriptions. A predefined workflow guides the user through the necessary steps and creates links to variables which would typically need to be adjusted.
Applications of AnyBody
AnyBody can be used to investigate a number of fundamental questions as well as to solve practical problems of ergonomics. Typical investigations could be:
- What are the benefits of antagonist muscle forces?
- Why do we have bi-articular muscles?
- How should we design a workplace for a particular repetitive work process?
- What are the causes of wrist- elbow- and shoulder pains from working with a computer mouse?
- How can we apply functional electrical stimulation of muscles to obtain a desired motion?
- What is the ideal anthropometry of a sportsman in a particular discipline?
- How can the central nervous system relieve the load on an injured joint, muscle, or ligament, and what consequences does it have for the rest of the musculo-skeletal system?
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